Our country Indonesia is a country that is rich in artistic and cultural aspects which are abundant and diverse in each region, Mother. Each region in this country has its own characteristics and uniqueness. One of the regions and cultures that is most widely known especially for its uniqueness is Bali.
Cultural values that exist in Bali are reflected in almost every aspect of their lives. One of the cultural characteristics that are still maintained and preserved by the community is the characteristic of Balinese traditional houses.
Excerpted from the book Archipelago Traditional House By Intania Poerwaningtias and Nindya K. Suwarto, it is explained that Balinese traditional houses as a whole do not have a special name, but Balinese traditional houses are usually complex in shape surrounded by walls.
The basic philosophy of building Balinese traditional houses based on caste
Balinese traditional houses are rich in philosophy in their construction. Quoted from the page RI Ministry of Education and Culture Study House, a traditional Balinese house built based on Balinese religion and tradition, this is the embodiment of Tri Hita Karana, a concept of human life to live in harmony with Sang Hyang Widhi Wasa God Almighty, in harmony with nature, and in harmony with fellow human beings. This is based on Asta Kosala-Kosali, a rule contained in the teachings of Balinese Hinduism.
Hinduism is the religion of the majority of Balinese people. In Hinduism, it is conceptually divided as follows:
- Brahmin caste (priest class)
- Knight caste (noble class)
- Vaisya caste (traders and employees)
- Sudra caste (ordinary class)
In accordance with the caste levels above, the designations or names in Balinese traditional houses vary according to the caste of the occupants of the house. The dwelling house for the Brahmin caste is called ‘geria’. The residence for the Knight caste was called a ‘puri’. Meanwhile, the term for housing for other than Vaisya and Sudra castes is ‘umah’.
Balinese traditional house concept
In general, the arrangement of traditional Balinese houses is built based on the body proportions of the owners of each house. So that the amount of house construction is adjusted to the needs of the family who live in it.
Asta Kosala Kosali is used as a reference in determining the angle and direction of the house building. In general, the north-east corner is a sacred area so that the temple in the house must be at that corner or the highest corner, while the south-west corner is lower.
The architecture of Balinese houses adheres to the orientation following the mountain and sea axes. The location and shape of the building can be seen from the many doors that are adjusted to face the mountain. The mountain is known as a symbol of the abode of ancestral spirits and gods.
So that the place of residence apart from being a place for living humans to live is also a place to live and stop by the ancestral spirits and the gods. Therefore, the house must give holy energy, bring prosperity for a peaceful and prosperous life.
Asta Kosala Kosali’s philosophy provides three aspects in building a residence, which is usually called Tri Hata Karana, namely; pawongan (Humans or their inhabitants), attenuation (environment), and Parahyangan (the Creator). The three elements must be harmonious and sustainable in an element of a traditional Balinese house.
This makes every residential building must reflect the existence of these aspects which are realized by a building complex, which consists of several buildings surrounded by a fence according to their respective functions and meanings.
The following are the names and functions of each building in the Balinese traditional house complex:
- Exhibition is a place of worship in a traditional Balinese house. It is located in the main area which is considered sacred in a traditional Balinese house.
- Umah Meten/Bale Daja the building which is located in the north of the yard. Its function is as a bed and also as a place to entertain visiting guests.
- Bale DauhThis building is usually used for children’s beds or other small family members.
- Bale Dangin usually used as a place to perform ceremonies, such as weddings, cutting teeth.
- Bale Delod usually used for sleeping, and doing other activities, such as making ceremonial tools.
- Barn as a place to store crops, in the form of rice and other garden products.
- Paon (Kitchen) which is a place to cook for the family.
- by the way serves as a diversion of the entrance so that the entrance is not straight into but sideways. This is intended so that the view from the outside does not go straight in.
- angkul-angkul or order namely as a place to enter and exit the yard.
Preservation of Balinese traditional houses
Balinese traditional houses as one of the cultural assets of the archipelago are very important to be preserved by the Indonesian people. In Bali itself, the preservation of traditional houses is carried out by the local government of Bali which is embodied in the regional regulation of the Province of Bali number 5 of 2005, concerning the requirements for the use of traditional Balinese house architecture.
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