Understanding Peer to Peer as a Term in Computer Networking (NETWORKING)

Understanding Peer to Peer . In a network peer to peer There is no server or client, meaning that every computer connected to the network has the same level. Usually network peer to peer used to share or share data or printers between computers on the network peer to peer called workgroup.

networking

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Above is the original article that I wrote in 2011, below is the updated version and additions 22/05/2021

Peer to Peer or commonly abbreviated P2Pis Distributed application architecture network computing that divides tasks or workloads among peers.

So every PC / Computer / Participant connected to the network P2P ( peer-to-peer nodes ), have the same powers and privileges.

Network peer-to-peer (P2P) has interconnected nodes (“peer“) that share resources with each other without using a centralized administration system/server.

Peers make some of resources they,

such as processing power, disk storage, or network bandwidth, are available directly to other network participants, without the need for central coordination by stable servers or hosts. Colleagues who are part of the participants P2P are suppliers and consumers of resources, in contrast to the model client-server traditional way of sharing the consumption and supply of resources.

P2P system it has previously been used in many application domains,

its architecture was popularized by file sharing systems Napster initially released in 1999. This concept has inspired new structures and philosophies in many areas of human interaction. In such a social context, peer-to-peer as a meme refers to a social network egalitarian that have emerged throughout society, made possible by Internet technology in general.

Example of P2P Network

Network peer-to-peer generally apply some form network overlay virtual on top of a physical network topology, where the nodes in the overlay form subset from nodes on the physical network.

Data is still exchanged directly over the network TCP/IP underlying , but at the application layer peers can communicate with each other directly, via a link overlays logical (each corresponding to a path through the underlying physical network). Overlays used for indexing and peer discovery, and creating P2P system does not depend on the physical network topology.

Based on how nodes are connected to each other in network overlayand how the resources are indexed and placed, we can classify the network as unstructured or structured (or as a combination of the two).

Unstructured P2P Network

unstructured p2p

Unstructured peer-to-peer networks do not impose any particular structure on network overlay by design, but rather formed by nodes randomly forming connections with each other.

(Gnutella, Gossip, and Kazaa are examples of unstructured P2P protocols).

Structured Network

Structured P2P

In network peer-to-peer structured overlays is set into a specific topology, and the protocol ensures that each node can efficiently search the network for files/resources, even if resources are very sparse.

The most common type of structured P2P network implements a distributed hash table (DHT), where a consistent hashing variant is used to assign ownership of each file to a specific peer. This allows peers to search for resources on the network using a hash table: that is, pairs (key, value) are stored in the DHT, and each participating node can efficiently retrieve the value associated with a given key.

Hybrid Model

The hybrid model is a combination of peer-to-peer and client-server models. A common hybrid model is to have a central server that helps peers find each other.

Spotify is an example of a hybrid model [hingga 2014]. There are various hybrid models, all of which make a trade-off between the centralized functionality provided by a structured server/client network and the node equivalence provided by a pure peer-to-peer unstructured network.

Currently, hybrid models perform better than pure unstructured networks or pure structured networks because certain functions, such as search, do require centralized functionality but benefit from the decentralized node aggregation provided by unstructured networks.

CoopNet content distribution system

CoopNet (Cooperation Network) is a proposed system for serving loading to colleagues who recently downloaded content, proposed by computer scientists Venkata N. Padmanabhan and Kunwadee Sripanidkulchaiworking in Microsoft Research and Carnegie Mellon University .

When the server is experiencing an increase in load, the server redirects the incoming peer to another peer who has agreed to reflect the content, so that the balance off-loading from servers. All information is stored on the server.

This system takes advantage of the fact that the bottle-neck most likely to be in bandwidth out of the CPU, due to its server-centric design. It assigns a peer to another peer that is ‘close in IP’ to its neighbor [kisaran awalan yang sama] in an attempt to use locality.

If multiple peers are found with the same file, this indicates that the node chose the fastest one from its neighbors. Streaming media transmitted by asking the client to cache previous stream, and then send it to nodes new.

More P2P Apps

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peer-to-peer

  • Torrent files connect colleagues
  • Bitcoin and alternatives like Ether , Nxt and Peercoins is digital cryptocurrency based on peer-to-peer .
  • Dalesa , peer-to-peer web cache for LAN (based on IP multicasting).
  • data a distributed version controlled publishing platform.
  • Filecoin is open source public, cryptocurrency and a digital payment system intended as a method of digital storage and cooperative data retrieval based on blockchain .
  • I2P , network overlay which is used to surf the Internet anonymously .
  • The Interplanetary File System (IPFS) is protocol and networks designed to create content-addressable methods, peer-to-peer store and share hypermedia distribution protocols. Nodes in an IPFS network form a distributed file system.
  • Jami chat apps and SIP peer-to-peer .
  • JXTA a peer-to-peer protocol designed for the Java platform.
  • my netsuku a Wireless community network designed to be independent of the Internet.
  • Open Garden a connection sharing application that shares Internet access with other devices using Wi-Fi or Bluetooth.
  • Resilio Sync directory synchronization application.
  • Research like a project Chord storage utility PAST , P-Grid and content distribution system CoopNet .
  • Syncthing directory synchronization application.
  • Tradepal App and M-commerce which supports real-time markets.
  • The US Department of Defense is conducting research on P2P networks as part of a modern network warfare strategy. In May 2003, Anthony Tether , director of DARPA at that time, testified that the United States military used P2P networks.
  • WebTorrent is a streaming torrent client P2P in JavaScript for use in web browsers, as well as in a stand-alone version of WebTorrent Desktop that bridges WebTorrent and BitTorrent serverless networks.
  • Tor (anonymity network)
  • Microsoft on Windows 10 using technology peer to peer proprietary so-called “Shipping Optimization” to deploy operating system updates using end-user PCs either on the local network or other PCs. according to Channel 9 Microsoft it causes a 30%-50% reduction in Internet bandwidth usage.
  • LANtastic Artisoft built as an operating system peer-to-peer. Machines can be server and workstation at the same time.

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