What is DNS? Definition, Functions, Advantages, and How it Works

What is DNS? For those of you who have been in the IT world for a long time, you must be familiar with this term. Where the general function of DNS is to make it easier for users or users to access a website without having to enter an IP address.

For example, you can directly write champhosting.com in section search bar if you want to visit the Jagoan Hosting website, instead of typing the number which is the IP address of the website. Practical, right?

However, how exactly does DNS work? Any other DNS functionality? Come on, just look for answers in the following article.

Understanding DNS

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DNS stands for Domain Name System which makes it easy for you to access a website website without having to bother typing the IP address in detail. IP addresses that have been packaged practically by DNS are stored in a special place called a DNS server.

What is DNS? Definition, Functions, Advantages, and How it Works

In short, the function of the DNS server is as a very large database and stores various kinds of information regarding the IP address that you access in a single file hostname. For example, such as www.facebook.com, www.instagram.com, and www.twitter.com.

DNS Parts

If likened to a hierarchy, DNS is a system with various layers that are interconnected with each other in the domain. The layers you need to know about DNS are:

1. Root Domain Level

The root level part of DNS is the layer that occupies the topmost position. You can find out the root level by looking at the dot (.) in a URL (Uniform Resource Locator).

URL is a collection of various characters with a format that already meets certain standards so that it can be accessed in general. With the URL, you can access a variety of information in the form of documents, images and text.

2. Top Level Domain

The top DNS domain is an extension of a URL whose position is at the front of the root domain level. In this section, the top-level domain, or commonly abbreviated as LTD, has two types, namely CCTLD (Country Code Top Level Domain) and GTLD (Generic Top Level Domain).

Just as the name suggests, CCTLD is a special code that only applies to certain regions of a country. For example, when you see a URL ending in .id, it means that the site is located in Indonesia, .jpn in Japan, and .sgp in Singapore.

While GTLD is more global and universal because it can be used in various countries, such as .com, .net, and .org suffixes.

3. Second Domain Level

The second level domain is the name of a site. For example, www.ipadguides.com. Well, the name “ipadguides” is a second level domain that is intended as a site identity when accessed.

4. Third Domain Level

Occupying the lowest position in the DNS hierarchy, Level Third Domains are better known as sub-domains which are located to the left of the second domain level.

An example is https://murahmeriah.ipadguides.com. If dissected, the “cheap” part is a sub-domain, then followed by “Jagoan Hosting” as a domain name, and ends with “.com” as a top-level domain.

5. Hostname

Hostname has the earliest position in a URL that shows the function of a site on the internet, for example, https://ipadguides.com. Well, the https part is what is called the hostname.

DNS Example

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There are various examples of DNS for those of you who are still confused about this. Take OpenDNS for example. In OpenDNS, there are two IP addresses, namely the primary IP ( and the secondary IP (208.67.220,220).

The function of OpenDNS is as a public service and can be used easily by anyone when they want to restrict a source of information on the internet.

Furthermore, there is Comodo Secure DNS with a primary IP address of and a secondary IP of which ensures that people are able to secure their sites from various kinds of malware and viruses. This DNS example has been proven to be safe due to a system update block periodically.

Do not miss the DNSWatch primary IP address and secondary IP whose main focus is transparency in presenting information without censorship so that it is more efficient when accessed.

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DNS function

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Actually, you can get a lot of DNS functions, so don’t be surprised if its implementation is very important during the access process website. Some of the DNS functions are:

  • Search server appropriate when sending e-mail.
  • Obtaining information related to IP Address on a site based on the name domain-his.
  • Processing information on a URL that is adjusted to the IP Address.
  • Facilitate the computer system when carrying out the address identification process website because it only needs to read it via IP Address.
  • The DNS function is very important in data retrieval in cache. If you have previously visited a site, then DNS only needs to check the data cachethen do recall history to make it easier to access the site.
  • DNS also makes it easy hosts on the internet to connect to each other via IP addresses. It’s like, host is a house created by a site developer on the internet, making it easier for the general public to access it.
  • Doing domain translation on a site is one of the most important DNS functions. For example, such as .id, .com, and .org which have IP addresses in them and are translated by DNS into a simpler form.
  • Finally, the function of DNS is to make it easier for users user (users) access the site without having to memorize the sequence and arrangement of its IP Address. Of course, it would be very time-consuming if user have to memorize the IP Address one by one.

Advantages of DNS

With DNS, of course it really makes it easy for internet users to access a website website rapidly. Besides being easy to access, the various advantages of DNS are its easy configuration process, especially when changing the IP Address by relying on updating data to match DNS.

In addition, the advantage of DNS is the consistent process of using it. Even if the IP address is changed, the level of security on a website maintained and facilitate the access process. No wonder the implementation of DNS can be an extra protection in anticipation of hacking (hack) from irresponsible parties.

How DNS Works

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There are 5 stages of how DNS works, starting from the DNS query (i.e. the system will process the request to the DNS server when you type in the URL of a site) which will be distributed through the cache system if it feels the information is not available on filehost.

Next move to the DNS recursor. When you enter a URL but the system still can’t find the information you need, the search will be directed to your Internet Service Provider (ISP).

After the DNS recursor, proceed to the root name server section to dig deeper information when in the previous stage they still couldn’t find the information needed. The root name server has a system like a database and is able to provide an IP address and a domain name.

When the domain name and IP address are found, the next step in how DNS works is moving to the TLD name server stage to check and read more detailed information, of course using a specific server until it is finally distributed to the end, namely the Authoritative Name Server and displays the information you need. .


That’s the information about DNS or Domain Name System that you need to know. DNS is a system that makes it easier for internet users to perform browsing to various websites. Simply write down the domain name, DNS will immediately convert it to the IP address of your destination website. Fast, easy, and practical right?

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